环境, 科学和技术社区, 科学 2021年4月20 13分钟阅读

信心的飞跃

由Rosemarie庆祝活动

Citizen scientists are teaming up with 葡京游戏平台 researchers leading Australia’s effort to prevent the extinction of precious amphibians.

当Vic Giniuzas接到电话时,他发现很难抑制自己的兴奋. 从他在斯普林伍德的家, he sets off into pristine 和 often isolated parts of the Blue Mountains with valuable technology in his backpack. 有时候,他的任务要求他在外面过夜——这并不是他在抱怨.

“我喜欢探索,”他说. “这有点像勘探. 你可能会发现一些有价值的,独特的东西.”

维克是一名自豪的“公民科学家”. 几年来,他一直在研究巨型穴居蛙, 这是威胁. 8月以来, 2020, he has been able to put his knowledge to good use as a volunteer assisting 葡京游戏平台 researchers.

视频: 从蓝山到别林根, 葡京游戏平台是如何保护葡京手机游戏厅的青蛙的.

2019年,著名两栖动物专家 - - -教授迈克尔·马奥尼 他的团队得到了300美元,000 from the NSW Government’s Saving Our Species grant to investigate the threats to five threatened frog species in protected habitats such as Vic’s beloved Blue Mountains National Park as well as the Barrington Range 和 New Engl和 Range.

作为三年计划的一部分, citizen scientists – local residents 和 社区 groups such as Bushcare Blue Mountains – are helping to monitor auditory data loggers known as AudioMoths, 它们被放置在已知的青蛙种群附近来记录它们的叫声. Volunteers such as Vic take the AudioMoths to designated sites 和 retrieve data every six weeks or so which is then shared with 葡京游戏平台 researchers.

为维克, being involved in the project gives him a sense of purpose: “I’ve always been a nature nerd 和 it gives my interest 和 passion legitimacy. 你觉得自己是更大事业的一部分.”

迈克尔·马奥尼(Michael Mahony)是该大学与公民科学家合作的推动力量. A committed teacher who began his 科学 career supervising high school students while completing his PhD, Michael's mentorship was recognised in 2016 by former 葡京游戏平台 student Dr Simon Clulow, 是谁用他的名字给新发现的青蛙命名的. Mahony's Toadlet (Uperoleia mahonyi) is found in select coastal s和 swamps in the Myall Lakes, 斯蒂芬斯港和中部海岸.

Michael's passion for teaching combined with a commitment to conservation drives his focus outside the lab on the role of citizen scientists. He has worked alongside hundreds of people throughout his research career who may not have attended university, 但想为保护青蛙尽自己的一份力量.

“有工具和培训, 公民科学家被授权成为葡京手机游戏厅的眼睛和耳朵, 还有更广泛的社区,”他说. "They can make a valuable contribution 和 I think since the bushfires more people want to be involved. 葡京手机游戏厅捍卫葡京手机游戏厅在乎的东西."

Michael Mahony教授正在Cooranbong地区寻找青蛙.

迈克尔·马奥尼说“青蛙”. “呱,呱,呱……brrr, brrr, brrr,”他模仿着. 令人惊讶的是,他们会回应我. 这是葡京手机游戏厅定位他们的方法.”

可悲的是,越来越多的青蛙种群正在消失. 2020年3月,黑色夏季森林大火最终被扑灭, 统计数字强化了主导新闻报道的悲观形象. 在全国被夷为平地的1800多万公顷土地中,有500万公顷位于新南威尔士州.

但正是动物的灭绝成为了全世界的头条新闻.

Michael was one of 10 scientists who contributed to the report commissioned by the World Wildlife Fund for Nature, 澳大利亚2019-2020年的丛林大火:野生动物死亡. It estimated that 3 billion animals were killed or displaced by the fires 和 51 million of those were frogs. 这些数字被认为是保守的.

“大火让葡京手机游戏厅所有人都很痛苦,”迈克尔说. “它们可能永远改变了一些栖息地. 葡京手机游戏厅仍在接受失去的一切,葡京手机游戏厅会再经历一次.

“青蛙是葡京手机游戏厅环境健康的象征,它们激发了葡京手机游戏厅的想象力. 你还记得小时候去灌木丛中寻找它们的情景. 它们在某种程度上比其他动物更容易接近. 你可以在晚上在后院收集蝌蚪,听青蛙的叫声."

早在火灾发生之前,青蛙就很脆弱. 20世纪80年代,在美国和海外,物种灭绝浪潮愈演愈烈. 在全球范围内, 在过去的30年里,近200种青蛙因疾病而灭绝, 另有200人面临迫在眉睫的威胁. 澳大利亚有240种蛙类, 其中40个在亨特地区, 所有这些多样化的人口在世界其他地方都找不到. 葡京手机游戏厅已经失去了10个物种,研究人员估计还有30到40个物种面临危险.

From 1980 to 1986, six species of frog became extinct in rainforest in Queensl和’s wet tropics. 它们在原始地区的消失意义重大. 理论包括干旱、臭氧层破坏和栖息地的丧失. It took until 1998 for it to be accepted that the chytrid fungus was largely responsible for wiping out more than a third of the world’s frog species. 壶菌病是一种高度传染性的真菌疾病,它攻击青蛙皮肤中的角蛋白, 扰乱电解质的流动和水平, 最终导致心脏病发作.

壶菌可能是由青蛙和蝌蚪直接接触而传播的, 或接触受感染的水. 这种疾病可能不会立即杀死青蛙, 在死之前,它们可以游泳或跳到其他地方, 将真菌孢子传播到新的池塘和溪流. 这就意味着不要把青蛙从一个地区转移到另一个地区是非常重要的. 靴子和轮胎都是湿的或泥泞的, 钓鱼, 野营, 园艺设备也可能导致了疾病的传播.

迈克尔将青蛙描述为“即将到来的灾难最清晰的信号”, like canaries in a mine because their shell-less eggs 和 permeable skin is so sensitive to changes in the 环境. 他的意思是,葡京手机游戏厅需要争取时间:

“尽管有葡京手机游戏厅的影响和影响,人类还没有创造出一个新物种. 葡京手机游戏厅不能制造DNA,但葡京手机游戏厅可以利用创新和技术找到解决方案. 葡京手机游戏厅不应该让数百万年的进化在手指的点击声中消失. 葡京手机游戏厅需要一份保险单. 葡京手机游戏厅可以把基因组储存在冷冻基因库中. 每个人都可以为它们的保存做出贡献.”

巨型横斑蛙(如图)是猎人地区40种原生蛙类之一.

葡京游戏平台 保护科学研究组 is creating a new conservation paradigm – one focused on innovative biological interventions that mitigate threats which can’t be stopped in time to prevent extinction. Traditional conservation programs known as translocations typically fail because threats remain present or establish themselves in translocation sites. 它们也不停留在国家公园、保护区或其他保护区的边界.

葡京游戏平台的研究小组正在推动三个关键的研究领域来保护青蛙物种:

低温贮藏

Michael 和 fellow researchers have developed a world-first ‘in the field’ semen collection 和 cryopreservation technique. “青蛙的体外受精,”迈克尔说,他被认为是两栖动物DNA低温保存的先驱.

This work has also resulted in a cutting-edge collaborative project on de-extinction called The Lazarus Project. 在世界范围, the Newcastle team helped revive 和 reactivate the genome of the extinct Australian Gastric-Brooding Frog using sophisticated cloning technology.

青蛙, 是在胃里繁殖后代,然后通过嘴产的, 于1986年灭绝. Newcastle researchers partnered with the University of NSW to recover cell nuclei from tissues that were collected in the 1970s 和 kept for 40 years in a deep freezer.

在葡京游戏平台两栖动物实验室进行了5年的反复实验, 研究人员从远亲大横斑蛙身上提取了捐赠的新鲜卵子, 使卵核失活, 用已经灭绝的青蛙的细胞核取而代之. 部分卵细胞自发分裂并生长到早期胚胎阶段. 这种创新的克隆技术是 Time 杂志的 25最好的发明 在2013年.

基因组银行

与塔朗加保护协会合作, the 葡京游戏平台 team is working to collect 和 store frog DNA in ‘banks’ to preserve frog species 和 also enable reintroduction of historical DNA to prevent inbreeding.

圈养繁殖计划

葡京游戏平台 researchers have gained new insights about the impacts of the chytrid fungus on the endangered Australian Green 和 Golden Bell Frogs by studying disease incidence in natural populations at Kooragang Isl和 和 Sydney Olympic Park. They found that peak infection occurred in winter, which led to major mortality events each year. 失去育龄雌性对种群的影响最大, as fewer females were able produce the large numbers of spawn that would have sustained the local population.

该团队与业界伙伴合作,开始了圈养繁殖计划. 2012 - 2016, 他们发布的40,000只蝌蚪和幼蛙进入古拉冈岛新建的栖息地.

经过了两个多成功的繁殖季节, 古拉江岛现在是新一代绿铃蛙和金铃蛙的家园, 在过去的近20年里,葡京手机游戏厅没有看到过大量的、可持续的数字.


The citizen 科学 program is supported by the NSW Government through a partnership between the Saving our Species program 和 the 环境al Trust.

与联合国可持续发展目标保持一致

4 -优质教育11 .可持续的城市和社区13 -气候行动14 -水下生活15 -陆地上的生命17 .实现目标的伙伴关系

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